The biodiversity financing shortfall primarily stems from a lack of understanding: the assessment of ecosystem services. Ecosystem services, which are the direct and indirect benefits provided by ecosystems (referred to as natural capital) for human well-being and quality of life, include practical aspects like food and water provision and climate regulation. While we recognize the importance of ecosystems’ productivity and regulatory functions to our economic sectors, we have limited insight into the actual value of these services, not to mention the costs (and benefits) associated with the decline of ecosystem services.

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